Long-term toxicity study on transgenic rice with Cry1Ac and sck genes

Food Chem Toxicol. 2014 Jan;63:76-83. doi: 10.1016/j.fct.2013.10.035. Epub 2013 Nov 5.


In the present work, we evaluated the chronic effects of the transgenic insect-resistant rice carrying Cry1Ac and sck genes on Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats through a 78-week feeding study. Based on the gender and weight, 180 SD rats were randomly and evenly assigned into three groups. GM rice and non-GM rice were separately formulated into diets at high levels. AIN-93 diet was used as a nutritional control. Body weight, food consumption, hematology and serum chemistry were monitored regularly. Rats were sacrificed for organ weight measurement and pathological examination at 52 weeks and 78 weeks. Body weight, food consumption, mortality rates, tumor incidences and pathological findings showed no significant difference among the three groups. Although certain differences in some hematology, serum chemistry parameters and relative organ weights were observed between GM rice group and control groups, they were not considered as treatment-related. Taken together, long-term intake of transgenic rice carrying Cry1Ac and sck genes at a high level exerts no unintended adverse effects on rats.

Keywords: Chronic toxicity; Cry1Ac; EFSA; European Food Safety Authority; FAO; Feeding study; Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations; GM; OECD; Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development; SD rats; SPSS; Sprague–Dawley rats; Transgenic rice; WHO; World Health Organization; genetically modified; sck Genes; statistics package for social science.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins
  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics*
  • Body Weight
  • Endotoxins / genetics*
  • Feeding Behavior
  • Female
  • Hemolysin Proteins / genetics*
  • Male
  • Organ Size
  • Oryza*
  • Plants, Genetically Modified*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Sprague-Dawley
  • Toxicity Tests*


  • Bacillus thuringiensis Toxins
  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Endotoxins
  • Hemolysin Proteins
  • insecticidal crystal protein, Bacillus Thuringiensis