Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biomechanical behavior of an all-suture glenoid anchor in comparison with a more conventional screw-in glenoid anchor, with regard to maximum load to failure and tensile displacement.
Methods: All mechanical testing was performed using an Instron ElectroPuls E1000 mechanical machine, with a 10 N pre-load and displacement rate of 10 mm/min. Force-displacement curves were generated, with calculation of maximum load, maximum displacement, displacement at 50 N and stiffness. Pretesting of handset Y-Knots in bone analog models revealed low force displacement below 60 N of force. Subsequently, three groups of anchors were tested for pull out strength in bovine bone and cadaver glenoid bone: a bioabsorbable screw-in anchor (Bio Mini-Revo, ConMed Linvatec), a handset all-suture anchor (Y-Knot, ConMed Linvatec) and a 60 N pre-tensioned all-suture anchor (Y-Knot). A total of 8 anchors from each group was tested in proximal tibia of bovine bone and human glenoids (age range 50-90).
Results: In bovine bone, the Bio Mini-Revo displayed greater maximum load to failure (206 ± 77 N) than both the handset (140 ± 51 N; P = 0.01) and the pre-tensioned Y-Knot (135 ± 46 N; P = 0.001); no significant difference was seen between the three anchor groups in glenoid bone. Compared to the screw-in anchors, the handset all-suture anchor displayed inferior fixation, early displacement and greater laxity in the bovine bone and cadaveric bone (P < 0.05). Pre-tensioning the all-suture anchor to 60 N eliminated this behavior in all bone models.
Conclusions: Handset Y-Knots display low force anchor displacement, which is likely due to slippage in the pilot hole. Pre-tensioning the Y-Knot to 60 N eliminates this behavior.
Level of evidence: I.
Keywords: All-suture anchor; Glenoid anchor; Y-Knot.