The objectives of this study were to present an expanded soybean RFLP map and to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] for seed protein and oil content. The study population was formed from a cross between a G. max experimental line (A81-356022) and a G. soja Sieb. and Zucc. plant introduction (PI 468916). A total of 252 markers was mapped in the population, forming 31 linkage groups. Protein and oil content were measured on seed harvested from a replicated trial of 60 F2-derived lines in the F3 generation (F2∶3 lines). Each F2∶3 line was genotyped with 243 RFLP, five isozyme, one storage protein, and three morphological markers. Significant (P<0.01) associations were found between the segregation of markers and seed protein and oil content. Segregation of individual markers explained up to 43% of the total variation for specific traits. All G. max alleles at significant loci for oil content were associated with greater oil content than G. soja alleles. All G. soja alleles at significant loci for protein content were associated with greater protein content than G. max alleles.