Neural organization of the defensive behavior system responsible for fear

Psychon Bull Rev. 1994 Dec;1(4):429-38. doi: 10.3758/BF03210947.


This paper applies the behavior systems approach to fear and defensive behavior, examining the neural circuitry controlling fear and defensive behavior from this vantage point. The defensive behavior system is viewed as having three modes that are activated by different levels of fear. Low levels of fear promote pre-encounter defenses, such as meal-pattern reorganization. Moderate levels of fear activate post-encounter defenses. For the rat, freezing is the dominant post-encounter defensive response. Since this mode of defense is activated by learned fear, forebrain structures such as the amygdala play a critical role in its organization. Projections from the amygdala to the ventral periaqueductal gray activate freezing. Extremely high levels of fear, such as those provoked by physical contact, elicit the vigorous active defenses that compose the circa-strike mode. Midbrain structures such as the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray and the superior colliculus play a crucial role in organizing this mode of defense. Inhibitory interactions between the structures mediating circa-strike and post-encounter defense allow for the rapid switching between defensive modes as the threatening situation varies.