Condom Use Among Men Who Have Sex With Men and Male-to-Female Transgenders in Jakarta, Indonesia

Am J Mens Health. 2014 Jul;8(4):278-88. doi: 10.1177/1557988313508430. Epub 2013 Nov 7.


This article examined differences in condom use during anal intercourse among men who have sex with men (MSM) and male-to-female transgender women in Jakarta, Indonesia. A cross-sectional design, structured interviews, and hierarchical linear modeling were used to examine condom use among MSM recruited from entertainment places (EPs; e.g., discotheques/dance clubs/karaoke bars), massage parlors (MPs), and among transgender women who congregated and/or sought sexual partners on streets/parks (S/P). The sample consisted of 91, 97, and 114 of MSM-EP, MSM-MP, and transgender-S/P, respectively. Respondents reported on 641 unique sexual partner encounters, which were "nested" within 302 respondents. Reported condom use was high, 66%, 84%, and 83% for MSM-EP, MSM-MP, and transgender-S/P, respectively, and varied across type of respondent. At the individual level, depressive symptoms and history of physical abuse during childhood and adulthood were associated with lower condom use (p < .05). By contrast, having a higher level of education was associated with more condom use (p < .05). At the partner level, condom use was associated with type of partners and the use of club drugs before sex. HIV-prevention efforts should take into account the multilevel determinants of condom use within these populations.

Keywords: HIV; Indonesia; MSM; condom; transgender.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Adult Survivors of Child Abuse
  • Condoms / statistics & numerical data*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Depression / epidemiology
  • Educational Status
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / prevention & control
  • HIV Infections / transmission
  • Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
  • Homosexuality, Male*
  • Humans
  • Indonesia / epidemiology
  • Interviews as Topic
  • Linear Models
  • Male
  • Sex Work
  • Sexual Partners
  • Transgender Persons*