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. Jan-Feb 2014;28(1):109-15.
doi: 10.1111/jvim.12239. Epub 2013 Nov 7.

Relation of Vitamin D Status to Congestive Heart Failure and Cardiovascular Events in Dogs

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Free PMC article

Relation of Vitamin D Status to Congestive Heart Failure and Cardiovascular Events in Dogs

M S Kraus et al. J Vet Intern Med. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background: Vitamin D plays a pivotal role in cardiac function, and there is increasing evidence that vitamin D deficiency is associated with the development of congestive heart failure (CHF) in people.

Hypothesis: Serum vitamin D concentration is lower in dogs with CHF compared with unaffected controls and serum vitamin D concentration is associated with clinical outcome in dogs with CHF.

Animals: Eighty-two client-owned dogs.

Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we examined the association between circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D], a measure of vitamin D status, and CHF in dogs. In the prospective cohort study, we examined whether 25(OH)D serum concentration was associated with clinical outcome in dogs with CHF.

Results: Mean 25(OH)D concentration (100 ± 44 nmol/L) in 31 dogs with CHF was significantly lower than that of 51 unaffected dogs (123 ± 42 nmol/L; P = .023). The mean calculated vitamin D intake per kg of metabolic body weight in dogs with CHF was no different from that of unaffected dogs (1.37 ± 0.90 μg/kg metabolic body weight versus 0.98 ± 0.59 μg/kg body weight, respectively, P = .097). There was a significant association of serum 25(OH)D concentration on time to clinical manifestation of CHF or sudden death (P = .02).

Conclusion and clinical relevance: These findings suggest that low concentrations of 25(OH)D may be a risk factor for CHF in dogs. Low serum 25(OH)D concentration was associated with poor outcome in dogs with CHF. Strategies to improve vitamin D status in some dogs with CHF may prove beneficial without causing toxicity.

Keywords: 25-hydroxyvitamin D3; Canine; Cardiology.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Box and whisker plot showing serum 25‐hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations in 31 dogs with congestive heart failure (CHF) and 51 unaffected control dogs. Values are means (black horizontal lines) with 75th and 25th interquartile ranges represented (boxes) and standard deviations represented by vertical lines. Outliers greater than 2 standard deviations from the mean are depicted (small circles). Mean 25(OH)D concentration in dogs with CHF was significantly lower than that of unaffected dogs (= .023).
Figure 2
Figure 2
Box and whisker plot showing calculated vitamin D intake per kg of metabolic body weight in 20 of 31 dogs with congestive heart failure (CHF) and 40 of 51 unaffected control dogs. Values are medians (black horizontal lines) with 75th and 25th interquartile ranges represented (boxes) and the range is represented by vertical lines. The median vitamin D intake per kg metabolic body weight in dogs with CHF was no different from unaffected dogs (P = .097).
Figure 3
Figure 3
Kaplan‐Meier curves depicting serum 25‐hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D] and incident cardiovascular events in dogs with congestive heart failure (CHF). Incident CV events were defined as second clinical manifestation of CHF, adjustment of cardiac medications attributable to suspected CHF, or sudden death. Eleven dogs had serum 25(OH)D <111 nmol/L (broken line) and 20 dogs had serum 25(OHD > 111 nmol/L (solid line). Median time to another cardiovascular event for dogs with serum 25(OH)D <111 nmol/L (151 days; 95% confidence interval, 78–224 days) was significantly (P = .036, log‐rank) shorter than the median time to another CV event for dogs with serum 25(OH)D ≥111 nmol/L (171 days; 95% confidence interval, 33–309 days). Vertical marks represent censored data.

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