Lower cranial nerves

Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 2014 Feb;24(1):35-47. doi: 10.1016/j.nic.2013.03.022. Epub 2013 Jun 13.


Imaging evaluation of cranial neuropathies requires thorough knowledge of the anatomic, physiologic, and pathologic features of the cranial nerves, as well as detailed clinical information, which is necessary for tailoring the examinations, locating the abnormalities, and interpreting the imaging findings. This article provides clinical, anatomic, and radiological information on lower (7th to 12th) cranial nerves, along with high-resolution magnetic resonance images as a guide for optimal imaging technique, so as to improve the diagnosis of cranial neuropathy.

Keywords: Anatomy; Cranial nerves; Imaging assessment; Magnetic resonance imaging; Magnetic resonance neurography; Pathology.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anatomic Landmarks / pathology*
  • Cisterna Magna / pathology*
  • Cranial Nerve Diseases / pathology*
  • Cranial Nerves / pathology*
  • Humans
  • Image Enhancement / methods
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods*
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods*