Background: Increasingly, apparent treatment-resistant hypertension has been recognized. However, much of the prevalence, predictors, and outcomes are largely unknown, especially in patients with coronary artery disease.
Methods: We evaluated 10,001 patients with coronary artery disease who were enrolled in the Treating to New Targets trial. Apparent treatment-resistant hypertension was defined as blood pressure ≥ 140 mm Hg despite 3 antihypertensive agents or <140 mm Hg with ≥ 4 antihypertensive agents. The primary outcome was major cardiovascular events (composite of fatal coronary heart disease, nonfatal myocardial infarction, resuscitated cardiac arrest, and stroke).
Results: Among the 10,001 patients in the trial, 1112 (11.1%) had apparent treatment-resistant hypertension. In a multivariable model adjusting for baseline differences, the treatment-resistant hypertension group had a 64% increase in primary outcome (hazard ratio [HR], 1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.39-1.94; P < .001), driven by a 69% increase in coronary heart disease death (HR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.22, 2.34; P = .001) and 73% increase in nonfatal myocardial infarction (HR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.39-2.16, P < .0001) when compared with the no apparent treatment-resistant hypertension group. In addition, patients with apparent treatment-resistant hypertension had a 71% increase in major coronary event (P < .0001), 45% increase in death (P = .001), 33% increase in heart failure (P = .05), 53% increase in any cardiovascular event (P < .0001), 60% increase in any coronary event (P < .0001), 68% increase in angina (P < .0001), and 51% increase in coronary revascularization (P < .0001) when compared with the no apparent treatment-resistant hypertension group. Results were largely similar whether the definition of apparent treatment-resistant hypertension was based on a blood pressure ≥ 140 mm Hg despite 3 agents or a blood pressure <140 mm Hg with ≥ 4 agents.
Conclusions: In patients with coronary artery disease, apparent treatment-resistant hypertension is associated with a marked increase in the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, including an increase in all-cause death.
Keywords: Outcome; Predictors; Prevalence; Resistant hypertension.
Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.