Ethnopharmacological relevance: Consumer use of botanicals has increased despite, in many instances, the paucity of research demonstrating efficacy or identifying liabilities. This research employed the place preference/aversion paradigm to characterize the psychoactive properties of Salvia divinorum extract (10, 30, 100mg/kg), salvinorin A (0.1, 0.3, 1.0mg/kg), Mitragyna speciosa MeOH extract (50, 100, 300 mg/kg), Mitragyna speciosa alkaloid-enriched fraction (12.5, 25, 75 mg/kg) and mitragynine (5, 10, 30 mg/kg) in rats.
Material and methods: Following apparatus habituation and baseline preference scores, male Sprague-Dawley rats were given eight counter-balanced drug versus vehicle conditioning trials followed by a preference test conducted under drug-free states. S(+)-amphetamine (1mg/kg) served as the positive control (in Exp. 2) and haloperidol (0.8, 1.0mg/kg) served as the negative control in both studies.
Results: Rats displayed place aversion to both Salvia divinorum and salvinorin A that exceeded that of haloperidol. Rats showed place preference to mitragynine that was similar to that of S(+)-amphetamine. This CPP effect was much less pronounced with the Mitragyna speciosa extract and its fraction.
Conclusions: These findings suggest that both botanicals possess liabilities, albeit somewhat different, that warrant caution in their use.
Keywords: Mitragyna speciosa; Mitragynine; Place preference/aversion; Salvia divinorum; Salvinorin A.
© 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.