Regulation of pyruvate metabolism in metabolic-related diseases

Rev Endocr Metab Disord. 2014 Mar;15(1):99-110. doi: 10.1007/s11154-013-9284-2.


Pyruvate is an obligatory intermediate in the oxidative disposal of glucose and a major precursor for the synthesis of glucose, glycerol, fatty acids, and non-essential amino acids. Stringent control of the fate of pyruvate is critically important for cellular homeostasis. The regulatory mechanisms for its metabolism are therefore of great interest. Recent advances include the findings that (a) the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier is sensitive to inhibition by thiazolidinediones; (b) pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases induce the Warburg effect in many disease states; and (c) pyruvate carboxylase is an important determinate of the rates of gluconeogenesis in humans with type 2 diabetes. These enzymes are potential therapeutic targets for several diseases.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Carbohydrate Metabolism / physiology*
  • Glucose / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Metabolic Diseases / metabolism*
  • Mitochondria / metabolism
  • Pyruvic Acid / metabolism*


  • Pyruvic Acid
  • Glucose