Pyocyanin: production, applications, challenges and new insights

World J Microbiol Biotechnol. 2014 Apr;30(4):1159-68. doi: 10.1007/s11274-013-1552-5. Epub 2013 Nov 9.


Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic, Gram-negative bacterium and is one of the most commercially and biotechnologically valuable microorganisms. Strains of P. aeruginosa secrete a variety of redox-active phenazine compounds, the most well studied being pyocyanin. Pyocyanin is responsible for the blue-green colour characteristic of Pseudomonas spp. It is considered both as a virulence factor and a quorum sensing signalling molecule for P. aeruginosa. Pyocyanin is an electrochemically active metabolite, involved in a variety of significant biological activities including gene expression, maintaining fitness of bacterial cells and biofilm formation. It is also recognised as an electron shuttle for bacterial respiration and as an antibacterial and antifungal agent. This review summarises recent advances of pyocyanin production from P. aeruginosa with special attention to antagonistic property and bio-control activity. The review also covers the challenges and new insights into pyocyanin from P. aeruginosa.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Infective Agents / isolation & purification
  • Anti-Infective Agents / metabolism*
  • Pest Control, Biological / methods
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa / metabolism*
  • Pyocyanine / isolation & purification
  • Pyocyanine / metabolism*


  • Anti-Infective Agents
  • Pyocyanine