CPLM: a database of protein lysine modifications

Nucleic Acids Res. 2014 Jan;42(Database issue):D531-6. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkt1093. Epub 2013 Nov 8.


We reported an integrated database of Compendium of Protein Lysine Modifications (CPLM; http://cplm.biocuckoo.org) for protein lysine modifications (PLMs), which occur at active ε-amino groups of specific lysine residues in proteins and are critical for orchestrating various biological processes. The CPLM database was updated from our previously developed database of Compendium of Protein Lysine Acetylation (CPLA), which contained 7151 lysine acetylation sites in 3311 proteins. Here, we manually collected experimentally identified substrates and sites for 12 types of PLMs, including acetylation, ubiquitination, sumoylation, methylation, butyrylation, crotonylation, glycation, malonylation, phosphoglycerylation, propionylation, succinylation and pupylation. In total, the CPLM database contained 203,972 modification events on 189,919 modified lysines in 45,748 proteins for 122 species. With the dataset, we totally identified 76 types of co-occurrences of various PLMs on the same lysine residues, and the most abundant PLM crosstalk is between acetylation and ubiquitination. Up to 53.5% of acetylation and 33.1% of ubiquitination events co-occur at 10 746 lysine sites. Thus, the various PLM crosstalks suggested that a considerable proportion of lysines were competitively and dynamically regulated in a complicated manner. Taken together, the CPLM database can serve as a useful resource for further research of PLMs.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acetylation
  • Databases, Protein*
  • Internet
  • Lysine / metabolism*
  • Protein Processing, Post-Translational*
  • Proteins / chemistry
  • Proteins / metabolism*


  • Proteins
  • Lysine