An integrated system for wireless capsule endoscopy in a liquid-distended stomach

IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 2014 Mar;61(3):794-804. doi: 10.1109/TBME.2013.2290018. Epub 2013 Nov 7.


The design and development of a functional integrated system for gastroscopy is reported in this paper. The device takes advantage of four propellers enabling locomotion in a liquid environment and generating a maximum propulsive force of 25.5 mN. The capsule has been equipped with a miniaturized wireless vision system that acquires images with a frame rate of 30 fps (frames per second). The overall size of the capsule is 32 mm in length and 22 mm in diameter, with the possibility of decreasing the diameter to swallowable dimensions. The capsule is remotely controlled by the user who can intuitively drive the device by looking at the video streaming on the graphical interface. The average speed of the device is 1.5 cm/s that allows for a fine control of the capsule motion as demonstrated in experimental tasks consisting of passing through circular targets. The video system performances have been characterized by evaluating the contrast, the focus, and the capability of acquiring and perceiving different colors. The usability of the device has been tested on bench and on explanted tissues by three users in real time target-identification tasks, in order to assess the success of the integration process. The lifetime of the capsule with active motors and vision system is 13 min, that is, a timeframe consistent with traditional gastroscopic examinations.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Capsule Endoscopy / instrumentation*
  • Capsule Endoscopy / methods
  • Equipment Design
  • Gastroscopy / instrumentation*
  • Gastroscopy / methods
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted
  • Stomach / anatomy & histology
  • Stomach / physiology
  • Swine
  • User-Computer Interface*
  • Video Recording / instrumentation*