Significance of urinary tract involvement in patients treated with cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC)

Ann Surg Oncol. 2014 Mar;21(3):868-74. doi: 10.1245/s10434-013-3354-2. Epub 2013 Nov 12.


Background: Urinary tract involvement in patients with peritoneal surface disease treated with cytoreductive surgery (CRS) and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) often requires complex urologic resections and reconstruction to achieve optimal cytoreduction. The impact of these combined procedures on surgical outcomes is not well defined.

Methods: A prospective database of CRS/HIPEC procedures was analyzed retrospectively. Type of malignancy, performance status, resection status, hospital and intensive care unit stay, morbidity, mortality, and overall survival were reviewed.

Results: A total of 864 patients underwent 933 CRS/HIPEC procedures, while 64 % (550) had preoperative ureteral stent placement. A total of 7.3 % had an additional urologic procedure without an increase in 30-day (p = 0.4) or 90-day (p = 1.0) mortality. Urologic procedures correlated with increased length of operating time (p < 0.001), blood loss (p < 0.001), and length of hospitalization (p = 0.003), yet were not associated with increased overall 30-day major morbidity (grade III/IV, p = 0.14). In multivariate analysis, independent predictors of additional urologic procedures were prior surgical score (p < 0.001), number of resected organs (p = 0.001), and low anterior resection (p = 0.03). Long-term survival was not statistically different between patients with and without urologic resection for low-grade appendiceal primary lesions (p = 0.23), high-grade appendiceal primary lesions (p = 0.40), or colorectal primary lesions (p = 0.14).

Conclusions: Urinary tract involvement in patients with peritoneal surface disease does not increase overall surgical morbidity. Patients with urologic procedures demonstrate survival patterns with meaningful prolongation of life. Urologic involvement should not be considered a contraindication for CRS/HIPEC in patients with resectable peritoneal surface disease.

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use*
  • Chemotherapy, Adjuvant
  • Chemotherapy, Cancer, Regional Perfusion / adverse effects*
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Hyperthermia, Induced / adverse effects*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Neoplasms / mortality
  • Neoplasms / pathology
  • Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / mortality
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / secondary
  • Peritoneal Neoplasms / therapy*
  • Postoperative Complications / diagnosis
  • Postoperative Complications / etiology
  • Prognosis
  • Prospective Studies
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Survival Rate
  • Urinary Tract / pathology*
  • Urologic Diseases / diagnosis
  • Urologic Diseases / etiology*