Relationship between dietary magnesium, manganese, and copper and metabolic syndrome risk in Korean adults: the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2008)

Biol Trace Elem Res. 2013 Dec;156(1-3):56-66. doi: 10.1007/s12011-013-9852-z. Epub 2013 Nov 12.


Recent studies have reported correlations between mineral intake and metabolic syndrome (MS), but accurate relationships and consistency in the results are difficult to confirm. Accordingly, this study aims to assess the dietary intakes of magnesium (Mg), manganese (Mn), and copper (Cu) to determine their relationship with MS. Data from a total of 5,136 adults (2,084 men, 3,052 women) was collected from the 2007-2008 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES), and the intakes of Mg, Mn, and Cu of the MS patients were compared with those of healthy adults. The relationship between the intakes of these minerals and the MS risks was analyzed. Diagnosis of MS was evaluated by the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) standards. Among all study subjects, 25.9 % (540 subjects) of the men and 24.5 % (748 subjects) of the women met diagnostic criteria for inclusion in the MS group. In the men, daily intakes of Mg and Cu in the MS group were significantly lower than those in control group, and in the women, daily intakes of energy, Mg, Mn, and Cu in the MS group were significantly lower than those of the control group. The women subjects with high blood pressure showed significantly lower intakes of Mg, Mn, and Cu than control subjects. In addition, in the women, the highest quartile of Mg and Cu was inversely associated with MS, but with adjustment were not maintained. However, in the postmenopausal women, MS was significant and inversely associated with the highest quartiles of Cu intake and the association remained significant after adjustments. Considering that MS incidence increases and dietary intake and nutrient density decrease with increasing age, and mineral intake is reduced accordingly, these results suggest that meal management with adequate mineral intake is advisable to control MS.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Asians*
  • Copper / administration & dosage*
  • Dietary Supplements*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Magnesium / administration & dosage*
  • Male
  • Manganese / administration & dosage*
  • Metabolic Syndrome / epidemiology
  • Metabolic Syndrome / metabolism*
  • Nutrition Surveys*
  • Republic of Korea / epidemiology
  • Retrospective Studies


  • Manganese
  • Copper
  • Magnesium