RFLP variability was studied in eight U.S. peanut cultivars, representing the four market types, and in 14 wild Arachis species accessions, using random genomic clones from a PstI library. Very low levels of RFLP variability were found among the allotetraploids, which included the U.S. cultivars and Arachis monticola, a wild species. The diploid wild species were very diverse, however. RFLP patterns of the allotetraploids were more complex than the diploids, and the two constituent genomes could usually be distinguished. On the basis of RFLP band sharing, A. ipaensis, A. duranensis, and A. spegazzinii appeared most closely related to the diploid progenitor species of the allotetraploids. A dendrogram of relationships among the diploid wild species was constructed based on band sharing.