The isolation and analysis of phenol-soluble modulins of Staphylococcus epidermidis

Methods Mol Biol. 2014;1106:93-100. doi: 10.1007/978-1-62703-736-5_7.


Phenol-soluble modulins (PSMs) are multifunctional peptide toxins produced by many staphylococcal strains. PSMs have received much recent attention, owing to multiple reports underscoring their importance for staphylococcal pathogenesis. Members of the PSM family may be strongly cytolytic to neutrophils and other cell types; promote inflammatory, receptor-mediated responses in several human cell types; and contribute to biofilm structuring and detachment. Here we describe biochemical methods to isolate, purify, and quantitatively analyze Staphylococcus epidermidis PSMs.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Intramural

MeSH terms

  • Bacterial Toxins / chemistry
  • Bacterial Toxins / isolation & purification*
  • Butanols / chemistry
  • Chemical Precipitation
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Phenol / chemistry*
  • Solubility
  • Solvents / chemistry*
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
  • Staphylococcus epidermidis / metabolism*
  • Trichloroacetic Acid / chemistry


  • Bacterial Toxins
  • Butanols
  • Solvents
  • Phenol
  • Trichloroacetic Acid