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On the Morphology of the Digestive System of Two Monomorium Ant Species

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On the Morphology of the Digestive System of Two Monomorium Ant Species

Daniel Russ Solis et al. J Insect Sci.

Abstract

The digestive system of adults and mature larvae of two ant species of Monomorium Mayr (Hymoneptera: Formicidae) were described with the aid of light and scanning electron microscopy, as there is a lack of studies in this area. These two ant species are recurrently found in urban habitats and are known as 'tramp species,' as they cause problems in households, businesses, and hospitals. The most interesting finds of the present study include the existence of spinules in the crop of adults, and the number of Malpighian tubules and rectal pads was constant among different castes, ages, and species.

Figures

Figure 1.
Figure 1.
Digestive system of last-instar larvae of Monomorium floricola: (A) longitudinal section of whole body; (B) frontal view of head capsule; (C) closer view of anterior region. Figures 1A and 1C are light micrographies; figure 1B is scanning electron micrographies. Abbreviations: anus (a), brain (c), common duct (d), epipharynx (fe), epithelium (u), hypopharynx (fh), labium (lb), labrum (la), mandibles (md), maxilla (mx), muscles (M), oesophagus (e), pharynx (f), peritrophic envelope (m), proventriculus (p), rectum (r), spinules (black arrowhead), valve of labial gland system (black arrow), ventriculus (v). Size of scale bars: (A) 0.081 mm, (B) 0.037 mm, (C) 0.034 mm. High quality figures are available online.
Figure 2.
Figure 2.
Digestive system of last-instar larvae of Monomorium floricola: (A) transitional region between foregut and midgut, showing the formation of the peritrophic membrane (black arrowheads); (B) external surface of foregut; (C) external surface of ventriculus; (D) section of internal wall of ventriculus; (E) transversal section of body, showing ventriculus. Figures 2A and 2D are light micrographies; figures 2B, 2C, and 2E are scanning electron micrographies. Abbreviations: circular musculature (white arrowheads), epithelium (u), longitudinal muscles (white arrows), Malpighian tubules (t), microvillosities (black arrowhead), muscles (M), oesophagus (e), peritrophic envelope (m), proventriculus (p), tracheoles (black arrows), vesicles (v). Size of scale bars: (A) 0.031 mm, (B) 0.010 mm, (C) 0.014 mm, (D) 0.044 mm, (E) 0.050 mm. High quality figures are available online.
Figure 3.
Figure 3.
Digestive system of adults of Monomorium floricola: (A) digestive of queens; (B) dilation of queen oesophagus; (C) detail on queen oesophagus, showing circular muscles (white arrowhead) and longitudinal muscles (white arrow); (D) longitudinal section of male crop; (E) internal surface of a worker crop. Figures 3B and 3D are light micrographies; figures 3A, 3C, and 3E are scanning electron micrographies. Abbreviations: crop (pa), epithelium (u), ileum (i), Malpighian tubules (tn), muscles (M), oesophagus (e), proventriculus (p), rectum (r), spinules (black arrowhead), ventriculus (v). Size of scale bars: (A) 0.200 mm, (B) 0.053 mm, (C) 0.011 mm, (D) 0.023 mm, (E) 0.010 mm. High quality figures are available online.
Figure 4.
Figure 4.
Digestive system of adults of Monomorium floricola: (A) queen proventriculus; (B) transversal section of proventriculus of queen; (C) closer view of ventriculus surface of queen; (D) longitudinal section of ventriculus of queen; (E) male pylorus; (F) queen ileum; (G) longitudinal section of queen rectum. Figures 4B, 4D and 4G are light micrographies; figures 4A, 4C, 4E and 4F are scanning electron micrographies. Abbreviations: cardiac valve (vc), circular muscles (white arrowhead), crop (pa), epithelium (u), formation and release of bubbles (black arrowheads), ileum (i), longitudinal muscles (white arrow), Malpighian tubules (tn), muscles (M), proventriculus (p), pylorus (b), rectal pads (pr), rectal valve (vr), ventriculus (v). Size of scale bars: (A) 0.040 mm, (B) 0.012 mm, (C) 0.020 mm, (D) 0.050 mm, (E) 0.020 mm, (F) 0.020 mm, (G) 0.038 mm. High quality figures are available online.

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