Comparative acute effects of the calcium channel blockers tiapamil, nisoldipine, and nifedipine on blood pressure and some regulatory factors in normal and hypertensive subjects

J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1986 Mar-Apr;8(2):294-302. doi: 10.1097/00005344-198603000-00011.


To clarify the pharmacological profile of the two new calcium channel blockers tiapamil and nisoldipine in humans, their acute effects as compared with those of the reference agent nifedipine were assessed in 10 normal subjects and 10 patients with essential hypertension. Blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), plasma and urinary catecholamine, sodium and potassium, plasma renin and aldosterone levels, and urinary prostaglandin E2 and F2 excretion rates were determined before and up to 4 or 5 h (urine values) after intravenous injection of placebo (20 ml 0.9% NaCl), tiapamil 1 mg/kg body weight, nisoldipine 6 micrograms/kg, or nifedipine 15 micrograms/kg. The four studies were performed at weekly intervals according to Latin square design. All three calcium channel blockers significantly (p less than 0.05 or lower) lowered BP and distinctly increased sodium excretion in hypertensive patients, but had only little influence on these parameters in normal subjects. HR was increased in both groups. Changes in BP and HR were maximal at 5 min and largely dissipated 3 h after drug injection. Effects on BP and HR, as well as concomitant mild increases in plasma norepinephrine and renin levels that occurred in both groups, tended to be more pronounced (about double) following nisoldipine than following tiapamil or nifedipine at the dosages given. Plasma aldosterone, epinephrine levels, and prostaglandin excretion rates were not consistently modified. These findings demonstrate that tiapamil and nisoldipine possess distinct antihypertensive properties in humans. Different chronotropic and renin-activating effects of different calcium channel blockers may be determined, at least in part, by a different influence on sympathetic activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Controlled Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aldosterone / blood
  • Calcium Channel Blockers / therapeutic use*
  • Catecholamines / blood
  • Electrolytes / urine
  • Female
  • Heart Rate / drug effects
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / drug therapy*
  • Male
  • Mathematics
  • Middle Aged
  • Nifedipine / analogs & derivatives*
  • Nifedipine / therapeutic use*
  • Nisoldipine
  • Posture
  • Propylamines / therapeutic use*
  • Renin / blood
  • Tiapamil Hydrochloride


  • Calcium Channel Blockers
  • Catecholamines
  • Electrolytes
  • Propylamines
  • Aldosterone
  • Nisoldipine
  • Renin
  • Nifedipine
  • Tiapamil Hydrochloride