Background: This study assessed the feasibility of a portable bihormonal closed-loop system at home.
Subjects and methods: Sixteen pump-treated patients with type 1 diabetes received 48 h of closed-loop therapy with a telemonitored insulin- and glucagon-delivering closed-loop system and 48 h of patient-managed open-loop therapy.
Results: Owing to technical problems in five cases, only 11 patients could be analyzed. Whereas median (interquartile range) glucose levels were not significantly different during Day 1 of open-loop control (OL1) from closed-loop control (CL1) (8.27 [0.83] mmol/L vs. 8.84 [1.47] mmol/L; P=0.206), they were significantly lower during Day 2 of closed-loop control (CL2) versus open-loop control (OL2) (7.70 [2.29] mmol/L vs. 8.84 [0.87] mmol/L; P=0.027). Time spent in euglycemia (3.9-10 mmol/L) was comparable with 67.2% (38.5%) in OL1 versus 79.2% (16.9%) in CL1 (P=0.189) and 66.0% (29.8%) in OL2 versus 76.5% (23.9%) in CL2 (P=0.162). Time spent in hypoglycemia (<3.9 mmol/L) was comparable on Day 1 of control (OL1, 0.68% [8.68%]; CL1, 2.08% [7.61%]; P=0.593) but significantly higher during Day 2 of control (OL2, 0.00% [11.07%]; CL2, 2.8% [9.8%]; P=0.0172) (P=0.017).
Conclusions: Bihormonal closed-loop control is feasible at home, with comparable time in euglycemia to open-loop control and significantly lower median glucose levels on Day 2 of control at the expense of more time in hypoglycemia, albeit still at a very low percentage of time.