Chemical and toxicological evaluation of transformation products during advanced oxidation processes

Water Sci Technol. 2013;68(9):1976-83. doi: 10.2166/wst.2013.452.


The entry of pharmaceuticals into the water cycle from sewage treatment plants is of growing concern because environmental effects are evident at trace levels. Ozonation, UV- and UV/H(2)O(2)-treatment were tested as an additional step in waste water treatment because they have been proven to be effective in eliminating aqueous organic contaminants. The pharmaceuticals carbamazepine, ciprofloxacin, diclofenac, metoprolol and sulfamethoxazole as well as the personal care products galaxolide and tonalide were investigated in terms of degradation efficiency and by-product formation in consideration of toxic effects. The substances were largely removed from treatment plant effluent by ozonation, UV- and UV/H(2)O(2)-treatment. Transformation products were detected in all tested treatment processes. Accompanying analysis showed no genotoxic, cytotoxic or estrogenic potential for the investigated compounds after oxidative treatment of real waste waters. The results indicate that by-product formation from ozonation and advanced oxidation processes does not have any negative environmental impact.

Publication types

  • Evaluation Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Environmental Monitoring
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
  • Hydrogen Peroxide / chemistry
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Ozone / chemistry
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations / analysis
  • Pharmaceutical Preparations / metabolism*
  • Toxicity Tests
  • Waste Disposal, Fluid / methods*
  • Wastewater / analysis
  • Wastewater / chemistry*
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / analysis
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical / toxicity*


  • Pharmaceutical Preparations
  • Waste Water
  • Water Pollutants, Chemical
  • Ozone
  • Hydrogen Peroxide