Background: Many strategies have been evaluated to improve the prevention and control of cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors. Nursing telephonic and tele-counseling individualized lifestyle educational programs have been found to improve blood pressure control and adherence to lifestyle recommendation. This study tested the efficacy of a nurse-led reminder program through email (NRP-e) to improve CVD risk factors among hypertensive adults.
Methods: All participants received usual CVD prevention and a guideline-based educational program. Subjects in the NRP-e group also received weekly email alerts and phone calls from a nurse care manager for 6 months. Emails contained a reminder program on the need for adherence with a healthy lifestyle based upon current guidelines. Follow-up visits were scheduled at 1, 3 and 6 months after enrollment; randomization was made centrally and blood samples were evaluated into a single laboratory.
Results: The final sample consisted of 98 (control) and 100 (NRP-e) subjects (mean age 59.0 ± 14.5 years; 51.0% males). After 6 months, the following CVD risk factors significantly improved in both groups: body mass index, alcohol and fruit consumption, cigarette smoking, adherence to therapy hours, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and total cholesterol, triglycerides, and physical activity. In the NRP-e group, however, the prevalence of several behaviors or conditions at risk decreased significantly more than in the control group: obesity (-16%), low fruit consumption (-24%), uncontrolled hypertension (-61%), LDL (-56%), and total cholesterol (-40%).
Conclusions: The NRP-e improved a range of CVD risk factors. The program had low costs, required only an average of <20 min per day in addition to normal practice, and may deserve further evaluation for the inclusion among existing care management approaches.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01823588.
Keywords: Hypertension; Nurse-led intervention; Primary prevention; Randomized controlled trial.
Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.