Objective: To assess behavior change over 12 months in users of e-cigarettes ("vapers").
Methods: Longitudinal Internet survey, 2011 to 2013. Participants were enrolled on websites dedicated to e-cigarettes and smoking cessation. We assessed use of e-cigarettes and tobacco among the same cohort at baseline, after one month (n=477) and one year (n=367).
Results: Most participants (72%) were former smokers, and 76% were using e-cigarettes daily. At baseline, current users had been using e-cigarettes for 3 months, took 150 puffs/day on their e-cigarette and used refill liquids containing 16 mg/ml of nicotine, on average. Almost all the daily vapers at baseline were still vaping daily after one month (98%) and one year (89%). Of those who had been vaping daily for less than one month at baseline, 93% were still vaping daily after one month, and 81% after one year. In daily vapers, the number of puffs/day on e-cigarettes remained unchanged between baseline and one year. Among former smokers who were vaping daily at baseline, 6% had relapsed to smoking after one month and also 6% after one year. Among dual users (smokers who were vaping daily at baseline), 22% had stopped smoking after one month and 46% after one year. In dual users who were still smoking at follow-up, cigarette consumption decreased by 5.3 cig/day after one month (from 11.3 to 6.0 cig./day, p=0.006), but remained unchanged between baseline and 1-year follow-up.
Conclusions: E-cigarettes may contribute to relapse prevention in former smokers and smoking cessation in current smokers.
Keywords: E-cigarette; Electronic cigarette; Nicotine; Smoking.