Relationship between skipping breakfast and bone mineral density in young Japanese women

Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2013;22(4):583-9. doi: 10.6133/apjcn.2013.22.4.10.


BACK GROUND AND AIMS: It is well known that insufficient nutrient intake leads to poor bone status. To find a simple evaluation method for prevention of nutrition intake disorder, a cross-sectional study with 275 healthy Japanese female students aged 19-25 was conducted.

Methods: Anthropometric parameters, bone mineral density (BMD) at lumbar and total hip, bone metabolic markers and physical activity were measured in study participants and the frequency of skipping meals (breakfast, lunch, supper), and absolute values for nutrient intakes were assessed using a Diet History Questionnaire.

Results: The frequency of skipping breakfast significantly correlate to total energy intake (ρ= -0.276, p<0.001). BMI, total intake of energy, intake of protein, intake of phosphate, and energy expenditure positively correlated significantly to BMD at lumbar and total hip (p<0.05) using simple linear regression. BMI (regression coefficient (b))=0.088, p<0.001), bone alkaline phosphatase (b= -0.050, p=0.012), total energy expenditure (b=0.019, p<0.001), and frequency of skipping breakfast (b= -0.018, p=0.048) were independent risk factors for lower total hip BMD by multiple regression analysis. The total hip BMD in participants who skipped breakfast three or more times was significantly lower than in those who did not skip breakfast (p=0.007).

Conclusions: In conclusion, managing the frequency of skipping breakfast and reducing it to <3 times per week may be beneficial for the maintenance of bone health in younger women.

背景及目的:已知營養素攝取不足會導致較差的骨質狀況。為尋找一簡單評估 方法以預防營養攝取失調,進行此橫斷性研究。共275 名年齡在19-25 歲的健 康日本女學生參與。方法:測量研究參與者的體位參數、腰椎及全臀部的骨密 度、骨代謝標記及體能活動;以飲食歷史問卷評估略過三餐(早、中、晚餐)的 頻率及營養素攝取的絕對量。結果:未吃早餐的頻率與總熱量攝取量有顯著相 關性(ρ= -0.276, p<0.001)。簡單線性迴歸顯示BMI、總熱量攝取量、蛋白質攝 取量、磷攝取量及能量消耗與腰部及臀部的骨密度(p<0.05)有正相關。多元回 歸分析顯示BMI(迴歸係數(b)=0.088, p<0.001)、骨質鹼性磷酸酶(b= -0.050, p=0.012)、總熱量消耗(b=0.019, p<0.001)及不吃早餐頻率(b= -0.018, p=0.048)是 較低的臀部骨密度的獨立危險因子。每週略過早餐3 次或以上者,比起那些每 天吃早餐者,有較低的臀骨密度(p=0.007)。總結而言,改善年輕女性不吃早餐 的頻率,如降低至每週少於3 次,可能對於維持骨骼健康有益。

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Anthropometry
  • Body Mass Index
  • Bone Density / physiology*
  • Breakfast / physiology*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Dietary Proteins / administration & dosage
  • Energy Intake
  • Energy Metabolism
  • Exercise
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Japan
  • Nutritional Status
  • Phosphates / administration & dosage
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Young Adult


  • Dietary Proteins
  • Phosphates