In the last few decades, there has been a significant increase in survival rate of preterm infants, especially very low birth weight infants. The nutrition problems have become particularly relevant in neonates, and nutrition support is usually required for preterm infants and most sick term infants. The actual amount of nutrition must be calculated (not estimated) in neonates. The goals of nutrition support are to maintain development and growth while avoiding nutrition related complications. Nutrition requirements (enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition) should be adjusted according to different weights and gestational age. Parenteral nutrition (PN), which allows the infant's requirements for growth and development to be met, is indicated in infants for whom feeding via the enteral route is impossible, inadequate, or hazardous. Enteral nutrition (EN) should be gradually introduced and should replace PN as quickly as possible in order to minimize any side-effects from exposure to PN. Inadequate substrate intake in early infancy can cause long-term detrimental effects in terms of metabolic programming of the risk of illness in later life. Optimal nutrition care of the preterm infant offers the opportunity to improve outcomes for children. This guideline aims to provide proposed advisable ranges for nutrient intakes in neonates. These recommendations are based on a considered review of available scientific reports on the subject, and on expert consensus for which the available scientific data are considered inadequate.
在过去的几十年里，早产儿的存活率明显升高，尤其是极低出生体重儿。新 生儿的营养问题也变得越来越重要。早产儿和大多数疾病状态的足月儿通常 需要营养支持。新生儿的营养需要量必要经过實際计算(而不是估计)。营养支 持的目标是维持正常的营养状况和生长需要的同时，避免营养相关并发症的 发生。不同体重和胎龄的新生儿营养需要(肠内营养和肠外营养)是不同的。 在患儿无法进行肠内营养、肠内营养摄入不足或肠内营养会造成危害的情况 下，肠外营养(PN)可以满足患儿生长及發育的需求。肠内营养(EN)应逐步添 加并尽快取代PN，以减少PN 的并发症 。早期摄入量不足，可造成远期代谢 疾病的不利影响。合適的营养支持可以改善早产儿的預後狀況。本指南旨在 为新生儿合理营养支持提供推荐摄入量。这些建议是基于对相关文献进行分 析，以及在资料不足情况下达成的专家共识。