A specific antiserum has been generated against inhibin-like material (ILM) of prostatic origin. Using the immunoperoxidase technique, localization of ILM has been examined in a total of 114 prostates including normal (4 specimens), malignant (46) and hyperplastic (55) tissues. ILM positive immunocytochemical reactions were confined to the cytoplasm and not the nucleus of the prostatic acinar cells in the three categories of prostate, whereas the stroma showed negative reactions. The intensity of positive reactions decreased in the following order: Hyperplasia, incidental and moderately differentiated carcinomas, poorly differentiated carcinomas, whereas metaplasia and granulomatous prostatitis gave negative reactions for ILM. Using this experimental protocol, 200 non-prostatic tissue were found to be completely negative, demonstrating the specificity of the test for prostatic epithelium. These findings indicate a potential use of ILM as a marker of prostatic tissue.