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. 2013 Dec;14(12):1039-42.
doi: 10.1038/embor.2013.177. Epub 2013 Nov 15.

Complex Diseases Require Complex Therapies

Free PMC article

Complex Diseases Require Complex Therapies

Ravi Iyengar. EMBO Rep. .
Free PMC article


Understanding disease causes and drug action at the molecular and systems levels could help to identify combinations of drugs that are more effective than individual drugs alone.

Conflict of interest statement

R.I. receives support for one postdoctoral position from GlaxoSmithKline (GSK). The person supported by GSK has had no role in this paper.


Figure 1
Figure 1
A schematic representation of the layers of networks that underlie organismal function, such as control of blood pressure (hypertension) or glucose levels in the blood (type 2 diabetes). Organismal functions arise from functional interactions between multiple organs. Organ and tissue functions arise from the functions of the multiple cell types of which they are comprised. Molecular networks exist within and between cell types that give rise to cellular functions. Drugs typically change the activity of the molecular components, and this change in activity percolates up to eventually affect organismal functions or malfunctions in disease states.
Figure 2
Figure 2
A flow chart of how systems biology can affect various facets of pharmacology and therapeutics.
Ravi Iyengar

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