Antibodies raised against purified glutelins and prolamines were employed as probes to study the cellular routes by which these proteins are deposited into protein bodies of rice (Oryza sativa L.) endosperm. Three morphologically distinct protein bodies, large spherical, small spherical, and irregularly-shaped, were observed, in agreement with existing reports. Immunocytochemical studies showed the presence of glutelins in the irregularly-shaped protein bodies while the prolamines were found in both the large and small spherical protein bodies. Both the large and small spherical protein bodies, distinguishable by electron density and gold-labeling patterns, appear to be formed by direct deposition of the newly formed proteins into the lumen of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In contrast, glutelin protein bodies are formed via the Golgi apparatus. Small electron-lucent vesicles are often found at one side of the Golgi. Electron-dense vesicles, whose contents are labeled by glutelin antibody-gold particles, are commonly observed at the distal side of the Golgi apparatus and fuse to form the irregularly shaped protein bodies in endosperm cells. These observations indicate that the transport of rice glutelins from their site of synthesis, the ER, to the site of deposition, the protein bodies, is mediated by the Golgi apparatus.