Background: Postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is common following cardiac and non-cardiac surgery, but the pathogenic mechanisms remain unknown. Many studies suggest that an inflammatory response is a key contributor to POCD. The current meta-analysis shows that the levels of peripheral inflammatory markers are associated with POCD.
Methods: An online search was performed to identify peer-reviewed studies without language restriction that measured peripheral inflammatory markers of patients with and without POCD, using PubMed, ScienceDirect, SinoMed and the National Knowledge Infrastructure database. Extracted data were analyzed with STATA (version 12).The standardized mean difference (SMD) and the 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were calculated for each outcome using a random effect model. Tests of heterogeneity assessment of bias, and meta-regression were performed in the meta-analysis.
Results: A total of 13 studies that measured the concentrations of peripheral inflammatory markers were included. The current meta-analysis found significantly higher concentrations of S-100β(SMD[95%CI]) (1.377 [0.423, 2.331], p-value < 0.001, N [POCD/non-POCD] =178/391, 7 studies), and interleukin(IL)-6 (SMD[95%CI]) (1.614 [0.603,2.624], p-value < 0.001, N[POCD/non-POCD] = 91/99, 5 studies), but not of neuron specific enolase, interleukin-1β, or tumor necrosis factor-α , in POCD compared with patients without POCD. In meta-regression analyses, a significant positive association was found between the SMD and the preoperative interleukin-6 peripheral blood concentration in patients with POCD (Coef.= 0.0587, p-value=0.038, 5 studies).
Conclusions: This study shows that POCD is indeed correlated with the concentrations of peripheral inflammatory markers, particularly interleukin-6 and S-100β.