Efficacy and safety of low-dose otelixizumab anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody in preserving C-peptide secretion in adolescent type 1 diabetes: DEFEND-2, a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, multi-centre study

Diabet Med. 2014 Apr;31(4):399-402. doi: 10.1111/dme.12361. Epub 2013 Dec 6.


Aims: Phase III DEFEND-2 investigated whether otelixizumab (3.1 mg over 8 days) preserved C-peptide secretion in patients with new-onset Type 1 diabetes, focusing on adolescents (12-17 years).

Methods: One hundred and seventy-nine patients (54 adolescents) were randomized to otelixizumab or placebo. The primary endpoint was change in 2-h mixed-meal-stimulated C-peptide area under the curve at month 12. Enrolment was suspended in April 2011 following negative efficacy results from DEFEND-1. DEFEND-2 terminated early after 12 months' efficacy and safety follow-up.

Results: Change from baseline C-peptide was not significantly different [∆ = -0.09 nmol/l (95% CI -0.17 to 0; P = 0.051)]. No differential C-peptide effect was seen for otelixizumab in adolescents and more adverse events were reported.

Conclusions: Efficacy and tolerability of otelixizumab was similar to DEFEND-1. The 3.1-mg dose was non-efficacious in adults and adolescents. Further investigation of the mechanism of action seen at higher doses and therapeutic window is required. Clinical Trials Registry No: NCT 00763451.

Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00763451.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized / therapeutic use*
  • C-Peptide / metabolism*
  • Child
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / drug therapy*
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Early Termination of Clinical Trials
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized
  • C-Peptide
  • otelixizumab

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT00763451