Photoprotection: part II. Sunscreen: development, efficacy, and controversies

J Am Acad Dermatol. 2013 Dec;69(6):867.e1-14; quiz 881-2. doi: 10.1016/j.jaad.2013.08.022.


In addition to the naturally occurring, physical, and systemic photoprotective agents reviewed in part I, topical ultraviolet radiation filters are an important cornerstone of photoprotection. Sunscreen development, efficacy, testing, and controversies are reviewed in part II of this continuing medical education article.

Keywords: AAP; AO; AVO; American Academy of Pediatrics; BEMT; CW; E1,1; EU; European Union; FDA; Food and Drug Administration; ISO; International Organization for Standardization; MED; PPD; ROS; SPF; Sun Protection Factor; TiO(2); UK; USAN; UV; UVA; UVB; UVR; United Kingdom; United States Adopted Name; ZnO; antioxidant; avobenzone; bemotrizinol; critical wavelength; extinction at 1 cm path length and 1% concentration; minimal erythema dose; oxybenzone; persistent pigment darkening; photoprotection; photostability; reactive oxygen species; sunscreen; sunscreen controversies; titanium dixoxide; ultraviolet A light; ultraviolet B light; ultraviolet filter; ultraviolet light; ultraviolet radiation; zinc oxide.

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Radiation Protection / methods*
  • Sunscreening Agents*
  • Ultraviolet Rays / adverse effects*


  • Sunscreening Agents