SeXX matters in immunity

Trends Immunol. 2014 Mar;35(3):97-104. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2013 Nov 13.


The significant contributions of sex to an immune response, specifically in the context of the sex bias observed in susceptibility to infectious and autoimmune diseases and their pathogenesis, have until recently, largely been ignored and understudied. This review highlights recent findings related to sex-specific factors that provide new insights into how sex determines the transcriptome, the microbiome, and the consequent immune cell functional profile to define an immune response. Unquestionably, accumulating data confirm that sex matters and must be a consideration when decisions around therapeutic intervention strategies are developed.

Keywords: autoimmunity; immune response; infection; sex; vaccination.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Autoimmunity / immunology*
  • Communicable Diseases / immunology*
  • Disease Susceptibility / immunology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Sex Characteristics*
  • Vaccination