Electromechanical wave imaging (EWI) has been show capable of directly and entirely non-invasively mapping the trans mural electromechanical activation in all four cardiac chambers in vivo. In this study, we assessed EWI repeatability and reproducibility, as well as its capability of localizing electronic and, for the first time, biological pacing locations in closed-chest, conscious canines. Electromechanical activation was obtained in six conscious animals during normal sinus rhythm (NSR) and idioventricular rhythms occurring in dogs with complete heart block instrumented with electronic and biologic pacemakers (EPM and BPM respectively). After atrioventricular node ablation, dogs were implanted with an EPM in the right ventricular (RV) endocardial apex (n = 4) and two additionally received a BPM at the left ventricular (LV) epicardial base (n = 2). EWI was performed trans thoracically during NSR, BPM and EPM pacing, in conscious dogs, using an unfocused transmit sequence at 2000 frames/s. During NSR, the EW originated at the right atrium (RA), propagated to the left atrium (LA) and emerged from multiple sources in both ventricles. During EPM, the EW originated at the RV apex and propagated throughout both ventricles. During BPM, the EW originated from the LV basal lateral wall and subsequently propagated throughout the ventricles. EWI differentiated BPM from EPM and NSR and identified the distinct pacing origins. Isochrone comparison indicated that EWI was repeatable and reliable. These findings thus indicate the potential for EWI to serve as a simple, non-invasive and direct imaging technology for mapping and characterizing arrhythmias as well as the treatments thereof.
Keywords: Biological pacemakers; Echocardiography; Electrical activation sequence; Electromechanical wave imaging; Imaging.
Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.