The cellular parameters of leaf development in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) have been characterized using clonal analysis, an approach that provides unequivocal evidence of cell lineage. Our results indicate that the tobacco leaf arises from a group of around 100 cells in the shoot apical meristem. Each of these cells contributes to a unique longitudinal section of the axis and transverse section of the lamina. This pattern of cell lincage indicates that primordial cells contribute more or less equally to the growth of the axis, in contrast to the more traditional view of leaf development in which the leaf is pictured as arising from a group of apical initials. Clones induced prior to the initiation of the lamina demonstrate that the subepidermal layer of the lamina arises from at least six files of cells. Submarginal cells usually divide with their spindles parallel to the margin, and therefore contribute relatively little to the transverse expansion of the lamina. During the expansion of the lamina the orientation and frequency of cell division are highly regulated, as is the duration of meristematic growth. Initially, cell division is polarized so as to produce lineages that are at an oblique angle to the midrib; later cell division is in alternating perpendicular planes. The distribution of clones generated by irradiation at various stages of development indicates that cell division ceases at the tip of the leaf when the leaf is about one tenth its final size, and then ceases in progressively more basal regions of the lamina. Variation in the mutation frequency within the lamina reflects variation in the frequency of mitosis. Prior to the mergence of the leaf the frequency of mutation is maximal near the tip of the leaf and extremely low at its base; after emergence, the frequency of mutation increases at the base of the leaf. In any given region of the lamina the frequency of mutation is highest in interveinal regions, and is relatively low near the margin. Thus, both the orientation and frequency of cell division at the leaf margin indicate that this region plays a minor role in the growth of the lamina.