During the recent 5 2/3 years, hepatic resection was performed on 118 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma. Ages ranged from 17 to 78 years with an average of 57 years. There were 101 males and 17 females. Underlying cirrhosis of the liver was found in 101 cases, and chronic hepatitis was found in 16 cases. Before surgery 62 patients had 71 associated conditions such as esophageal varices, diabetes mellitus, cholelithiasis, or peptic ulcer. Operations for the varices and cholelithiasis were performed simultaneously with hepatic resection in 15 and six patients, respectively. The operative mortality rate within 1 month was 7.6%, and the overall in-hospital death rate was 14.4%. In 94 patients with curative resection, the 2-year survival rate was 81.2% in patients without cirrhosis and 55.4% in patients with cirrhosis. The 4-year survival rate was 81.2% in the former and 34.8% in the latter group. The prognosis was significantly better in patients without cirrhosis than in those with cirrhosis. On the contrary, 21 of 24 patients with palliative resection died within 2 years despite extensive chemotherapy. The present results may indicate that the resectability rate of hepatocellular carcinoma is currently increasing, even in the presence of cirrhosis of the liver due to early detection of the tumor by current advances in diagnostic methods and also that major hepatic resection is possible in selected patients with cirrhosis.