Methods are presented for determining linkage between a marker locus and a nearby locus affecting a quantitative trait (quantitative trait locus=QTL), based on changes in the marker allele frequencies in selection lines derived from the F-2 of a cross between inbred lines, or in the "high" and "low" phenotypic classes of an F-2 or BC population. The power of such trait-based (TB) analyses was evaluated and compared with that of methods for determining linkage based on the mean quantitative trait value of marker genotypes in F-2 or BC populations [marker-based (MB) analyses]. TB analyses can be utilized for marker-QTL linkage determination in situations where the MB analysis is not applicable, including analysis of polygenic resistance traits where only a part of the population survives exposure to the Stressor and analysis of marker-allele frequency changes in selection lines. TB analyses may be a useful alternative to MB analyses when interest is centered on a single quantitative trait only and costs of scoring for markers are high compared with costs of raising and obtaining quantitative trait information on F-2 or BC individuals. In this case, a TB analysis will enable equivalent power to be obtained with fewer individuals scored for the marker, but more individuals scored for the quantitative trait. MB analyses remain the method of choice when more than one quantitative trait is to be analyzed in a given population.