Application of dairy proteins as technological and nutritional improvers of calcium-supplemented gluten-free bread

Nutrients. 2013 Nov 14;5(11):4503-20. doi: 10.3390/nu5114503.


Effect of dairy proteins on gluten-free dough behavior, and nutritional and technological properties of gluten-free bread was evaluated. Experimental doughs, containing dairy powders, showed low consistency. Obtained gluten-free breads were rich in proteins, and, regarding the energy value delivered by proteins, they could be considered as a source of proteins or high in proteins. Applied dairy proteins affected the technological properties of experimental breads causing a significant (p < 0.05) increase of the specific volume, crust darkening, and crumb lightness, depending on the dairy supplementation level, rather than the protein type. Dairy proteins incorporated at a 12% level, significantly (p < 0.05) decreased the hardness; nevertheless, the highest amount of proteins tested led to the opposite effect. These results indicate that milk proteins tested could be successfully added to gluten-free bread with beneficial effects on technological and nutritional properties.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Bread*
  • Calcium*
  • Dairy Products*
  • Diet, Gluten-Free*
  • Dietary Proteins*
  • Dietary Supplements
  • Flour*
  • Food Quality
  • Glutens
  • Hardness
  • Humans
  • Milk Proteins*
  • Starch


  • Dietary Proteins
  • Milk Proteins
  • Glutens
  • Starch
  • Calcium