Chromatophore motoneurons in the brain of the squid, Lolliguncula brevis: an HRP study

Brain Res. 1986 May 21;374(1):21-9. doi: 10.1016/0006-8993(86)90390-2.


The location of the motoneuron somata controlling activity of the chromatophore muscles was studied in the squid Lolliguncula brevis. Retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase from injection sites in the skin or in the mantle muscle established that the chromatophore motoneurons are situated in the subesophageal mass of the brain while at least some of the mantle muscle motoneurons are in the stellate ganglia. Motoneurons to chromatophores in the mantle have their somata in the posterior subesophageal mass, mainly in the chromatophore or fin lobes. Motoneurons to chromatophores in the head are located in the anterior pedal lobes and those to the chromatophores in the arms project mainly from the anterior chromatophore lobes. However, some neurons in the posterior chromatophore lobes project to the head or arm regions. A few cells in both the anterior and posterior chromatophore lobes project contralaterally. Somata in other lobes of the subesophageal mass are also labelled by injections in the skin or in the mantle muscle. Evidence presented here suggests that some of the neurons labelled outside the chromatophore lobes are chromatophore motoneurons.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Axonal Transport
  • Brain Mapping
  • Cell Count
  • Chromatophores / analysis*
  • Decapodiformes
  • Horseradish Peroxidase
  • Injections, Subcutaneous
  • Motor Neurons / analysis*
  • Motor Neurons / classification
  • Muscles / innervation


  • Horseradish Peroxidase