The spectrum of clinical features in CHARGE syndrome

Clin Genet. 1986 Apr;29(4):298-310. doi: 10.1111/j.1399-0004.1986.tb01258.x.


Fifteen patients with CHARGE syndrome are described, nine sporadic and six familial. A recognizable pattern of malformations is present which appears to constitute a syndrome rather than a non-random association. In addition to acronymic features of Coloboma, Heart disease, Atresia of the choanae, Retarded growth and development, Genital hypoplasia, and Ear anomalies, other important diagnostic features include facial paralysis and feeding problems suggestive of velopharyngeal incompetency. A square facial appearance with asymmetry and malar flattening is characteristic, and long philtrum or prominent nasal columella may be present. Characteristic external ear anomalies and a 'wedge'-shaped audiogram may be unique to this syndrome. Short stature and hypogonadism with genital hypoplasia is pituitary or possibly hypothalamic in origin. Each feature varies from normal to severe involvement including mental function, and no single feature appears to be necessary for diagnosis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Abnormalities, Multiple / genetics*
  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Central Nervous System Diseases / genetics
  • Child, Preschool
  • Choanal Atresia / genetics
  • Coloboma / genetics
  • Deafness / genetics
  • Developmental Disabilities / genetics
  • Ear / abnormalities
  • Female
  • Growth Disorders / genetics
  • Heart Defects, Congenital / genetics
  • Humans
  • Hypogonadism / genetics
  • Infant
  • Intellectual Disability / genetics
  • Iris / abnormalities
  • Male
  • Retina / abnormalities
  • Syndrome