Urinary alpha 1-microglobulin as an indicator protein of renal tubular dysfunction caused by environmental cadmium exposure

J Appl Toxicol. 1986 Jun;6(3):171-8. doi: 10.1002/jat.2550060307.

Abstract

An epidemiologic investigation was carried out to clarify the significance of the urinary excretion of alpha 1-microglobulin (alpha 1-MG) in people aged 50 years and over living in a Cd-polluted area in Japan. Approximately 80% of the population participated in the health examination. The urinary and serum levels and the relative clearance of alpha 1-MG to creatinine clearance were compared with various parameters (age, urinary beta 2-microglobulin (beta 2-MG), total protein, Cd, Cu and Zn, serum beta 2-MG, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen and relative clearances of alpha 1-MG, beta 2-MG, inorganic phosphate and uric acid). It was found that the urinary excretion of alpha 1-MG is closely associated with the urinary Cd and Cu and with the indices of renal dysfunction listed above. These results suggest that the urinary alpha 1-MG level markedly reflects a degree of proximal tubular dysfunction and that it may be useful as one of the screening measures for proximal tubular dysfunction caused by environmental Cd exposure.

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Aged
  • Alpha-Globulins / urine*
  • Cadmium / toxicity*
  • Copper / urine
  • Environmental Exposure
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Kidney Tubules / drug effects*
  • Kidney Tubules / metabolism
  • Male
  • Metabolic Clearance Rate
  • Middle Aged
  • Proteinuria / urine
  • Zinc / urine
  • beta 2-Microglobulin / urine

Substances

  • Alpha-Globulins
  • alpha-1-microglobulin
  • beta 2-Microglobulin
  • Cadmium
  • Copper
  • Zinc