Little is known about the cognitive factors associated with adherence to antiestrogen therapy. Our objective was to investigate the association between domain-specific cognitive function and adherence among women in a clinical prevention trial of oral antiestrogen therapies. We performed a secondary analysis of Co-STAR, an ancillary study of the STAR breast cancer prevention trial in which postmenopausal women at increased breast cancer risk were randomized to tamoxifen or raloxifene. Co-STAR enrolled nondemented participants ≥65 years old to compare treatment effects on cognition. The cognitive battery assessed global cognitive function (Modified Mini-Mental State Exam), and specific cognitive domains of verbal knowledge, verbal fluency, figural memory, verbal memory, attention and working memory, spatial ability, and fine motor speed. Adherence was defined by a ratio of actual time taking therapy per protocol ≥80% of expected time. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association between cognitive test scores and adherence to therapy. The mean age of the 1,331 Co-STAR participants was 67.2 ± 4.3 years. Mean 3MS score was 95.1 (4.7) and 14% were nonadherent. In adjusted analyses, the odds of nonadherence were lower for those with better scores on verbal memory [OR (95% confidence interval): 0.75 (0.62-0.92)]. Larger relative deficits in verbal memory compared with verbal fluency were also associated with nonadherence [1.28 (1.08-1.51)]. Among nondemented older women, subtle differences in memory performance were associated with medication adherence. Differential performance across cognitive domains may help identify persons at greater risk for poor adherence.