RNA-guided endonucleases (RGENs), derived from the prokaryotic Type II CRISPR-Cas system, enable targeted genome modification in cells and organisms. Here we describe the establishment of gene-knockout mice and zebrafish by the injection of RGENs as Cas9 protein:guide RNA complexes or Cas9 mRNA plus guide RNA into one-cell-stage embryos of both species. RGENs efficiently generated germline transmittable mutations in up to 93% of newborn mice with minimal toxicity. RGEN-induced mutations in the mouse Prkdc gene that encodes an enzyme critical for DNA double-strand break repair resulted in immunodeficiency both in F₀ and F₁ mice. We propose that RGEN-mediated mutagenesis in animals will greatly expedite the creation of genetically engineered model organisms, accelerating functional genomic research.