Sulfate uptake into duckweed (Lemna gibba G1) was studied by means of [(35)S]sulfate influx and measurements of electrical membrane potential. Uptake was strongly regulated by the intracellular content of soluble sulfate. At the onset of sulfate uptake the membrane potential was transiently depolarized. Fusicoccin stimulated uptake up to 165% of the control even at pH 8. It is suggested that sulfate uptake is energized in the whole pH range by a 3H(+)/sulfate cotransport mechanism. Kinetics of sulfate uptake and sulfate-induced membrane depolarization in the concentration range of 5 μM to 1 mM sulfate at pH 5.7 was best described by two Michaelis-Menten terms without any linear component. The second system had a lower affinity for sulfate and was fully active only at sufficiently high proton concentrations.