Racial comparisons of diabetes care and intermediate outcomes in a patient-centered medical home

Diabetes Care. 2014 Apr;37(4):993-1001. doi: 10.2337/dc13-1332. Epub 2013 Nov 19.


OBJECTIVE To assess racial differences in diabetes processes and intermediate outcomes of care in an internal medicine, patient-centered medical home (PCMH) group practice. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 1,457 adults with diabetes receiving care from 89 medical providers within a PCMH-designated academic practice between 1 July 2009 and 31 July 2010. We used mixed models to assess independent associations between patient race (non-Hispanic white or black) and 1) receipt of processes of care (A1C and LDL testing, foot and retinal examination, and influenza and pneumococcal vaccination) and 2) achievement of intermediate outcomes (LDL <100 mg/dL, blood pressure [BP] <140/90 mmHg, A1C <7.0% [<53 mmol/mol], and A1C >9.0% [>75 mmol/mol]), controlling for sociodemographic factors, health status, treatment intensity, and clinical continuity. RESULTS Compared with non-Hispanic white patients, black patients were younger, were more often single, had lower educational attainment, and were less likely to have commercial insurance. In unadjusted analyses, fewer black patients received a retinal examination and influenza vaccination during the study period or any lifetime pneumococcal vaccination (P < 0.05 [all comparisons]). Fewer black patients achieved an LDL <100 mg/dL, BP <140/90 mmHg, or A1C <7.0% (<53 mmol/mol), while more black patients had an A1C >9.0% (>75 mmol/mol) (P < 0.05 [all comparisons]). In multivariable models, black patients were less likely to receive A1C testing (odds ratio [OR] 0.57 [95% CI 0.34-0.95]) or influenza vaccination (OR 0.75 [95% CI 0.57-0.99]) or to achieve an LDL <100 mg/dL (OR 0.74 [95% CI 0.55-0.99]) or BP <140/90 mmHg (OR 0.64 [95% CI 0.49-0.84]). CONCLUSIONS Racial differences in processes and intermediate outcomes of diabetes care were present within this PCMH-designated practice, controlling for differences in sociodemographic, clinical, and treatment factors.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • African Continental Ancestry Group
  • Aged
  • Continuity of Patient Care
  • Diabetes Mellitus / physiopathology
  • Diabetes Mellitus / therapy*
  • European Continental Ancestry Group
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Patient-Centered Care*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Treatment Outcome