Satavaptan (SR121463) is a vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist that has been shown to improve hyponatremia in patients with cirrhosis, congestive heart failure, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis. While known to inhibit adenylyl cyclase-mediated accumulation of intracellular cyclic AMP and potentially recruit β-arrestin in kidney cell lines, very little is known regarding the signaling pathways that are affected by this drug. To this end, we carried out a global quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of native rat inner medullary collecting duct cells pretreated with satavaptan or vehicle control followed by the V2 receptor agonist desmopressin (dDAVP) for 0.5, 2, 5, or 15 min. A total of 2,449 unique phosphopeptides from 1,160 proteins were identified. Phosphopeptides significantly changed by satavaptan included many of the same kinases [protein kinase A, phosphoinositide 3-kinase, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase 7 (TAK1), and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase 2] and channels (aquaporin-2 and urea transporter UT-A1) regulated by vasopressin. Time course clustering and kinase motif analysis suggest that satavaptan blocks dDAVP-mediated activation of basophilic kinases, while also blocking dDAVP-mediated inhibition of proline-directed kinases. Satavaptan affects a variety of dDAVP-mediated processes including regulation of cell-cell junctions, actin cytoskeleton dynamics, and signaling through Rho GTPases. These results demonstrate that, overall, satavaptan acts as a selective V2 receptor antagonist and affects many of the same signaling pathways regulated by vasopressin. This study represents the first "systems-wide" analysis of a "vaptan"-class drug and provides a wealth of new data regarding the effects of satavaptan on vasopressin-mediated phosphorylation events.
Keywords: iTRAQ; inner medullary collecting duct; mass spectrometry; phosphoproteomics; vasopressin.