NO/cGMP signaling plays an important role in vascular relaxation and regulation of blood pressure. The key enzyme in the cascade, the NO-stimulated cGMP-forming guanylyl cyclase exists in two enzymatically indistinguishable isoforms (NO-GC1, NO-GC2) with NO-GC1 being the major NO-GC in the vasculature. Here, we studied the NO/cGMP pathway in renal resistance arteries of NO-GC1 KO mice and its role in renovascular hypertension induced by the 2-kidney-1-clip-operation (2K1C). In the NO-GC1 KOs, relaxation of renal vasculature as determined in isolated perfused kidneys was reduced in accordance with the marked reduction of cGMP-forming activity (80%). Noteworthy, increased eNOS-catalyzed NO formation was detected in kidneys of NO-GC1 KOs. Upon the 2K1C operation, NO-GC1 KO mice developed hypertension but the increase in blood pressures was not any higher than in WT. Conversely, operated WT mice showed a reduction of cGMP-dependent relaxation of renal vessels, which was not found in the NO-GC1 KOs. The reduced relaxation in operated WT mice was restored by sildenafil indicating that enhanced PDE5-catalyzed cGMP degradation most likely accounts for the attenuated vascular responsiveness. PDE5 activation depends on allosteric binding of cGMP. Because cGMP levels are lower, the 2K1C-induced vascular changes do not occur in the NO-GC1 KOs. In support of a higher PDE5 activity, sildenafil reduced blood pressure more efficiently in operated WT than NO-GC1 KO mice. All together our data suggest that within renovascular hypertension, cGMP-based PDE5 activation terminates NO/cGMP signaling thereby providing a new molecular basis for further pharmacological interventions.