Ultrasonic emulsification of eucalyptus oil nanoemulsion: antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and wound healing activity in Wistar rats

Ultrason Sonochem. 2014 May;21(3):1044-9. doi: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2013.10.021. Epub 2013 Nov 6.


The plant derived essential oil nanoemulsion was prepared using a mixture of components containing eucalyptus oil as organic phase, water as continuous phase, and non ionic surfactant, Tween 80, as emulsifier at a particular proportion of 1:1 v/v%. The ultrasonication was applied for varied processing time from 0 to 30 min to study the effect of time on the formation of nanoemulsion and physical stability of formulation by this method. The transparency and stability of emulsion was enhanced when the sonication time was increased compared to hand blender emulsion. The most stable nanoemulsion was obtained in 30 min sonication having the mean droplet diameter of 3.8 nm. The antibacterial studies of nanoemulsion against Staphylococcus aureus by time kill analysis showed complete loss of viability within 15 min of interaction. Observations from scanning electron microscopy of treated bacterial cells confirmed the membrane damage compared to control bacteria. Furthermore, the wound healing potential and skin irritation activity of the formulated nanoemulsion in Wistar rats, suggested non-irritant and higher wound contraction rate with respect to control and neomycin treated rats. These results proposed that the formulated system could be favourable for topical application in pharmaceutical industries.

Keywords: Antibacterial; Eucalyptus oil; Nanoemulsion; Scanning electron microscopy; Ultrasonication; Wound healing.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / adverse effects
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / chemistry
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology
  • Cell Membrane / drug effects
  • Emulsions
  • Eucalyptus / chemistry*
  • Male
  • Nanostructures*
  • Plant Oils / adverse effects
  • Plant Oils / chemistry*
  • Plant Oils / pharmacology*
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Skin / cytology
  • Skin / drug effects
  • Staphylococcus aureus / cytology
  • Staphylococcus aureus / drug effects*
  • Time Factors
  • Ultrasonics*
  • Wound Healing / drug effects*


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Emulsions
  • Plant Oils