The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPSs) are a group of rare genetic disorders of glycosaminoglycan catabolism, caused by a deficiency of lysosomal enzymes required for GAG degradation. Incomplete breakdown of glycosaminoglycans leads to progressive accumulation of these substances in many tissues throughout the body. Different residual enzymatic activity can result in different phenotypes of the same MPS disorder, from severe to attenuated. Musculoskeletal manifestations are common across all forms of MPS. Skeletal and joint abnormalities are prominent features of many MPS disorders, particularly attenuated phenotypes. However, diagnostic delays occur frequently for patients with an MPS, especially those with more attenuated forms of disease. In the absence of appropriate treatment, these conditions are chronic, progressive and often debilitating, but treatment for many types of MPS is now available. Therefore, increasing awareness of MPS among rheumatologists is extremely important.