Epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus-associated acute lower respiratory tract infection hospitalizations among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected South African children, 2010-2011

J Infect Dis. 2013 Dec 15;208 Suppl 3:S217-26. doi: 10.1093/infdis/jit479.

Abstract

Background: There are limited data on respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection among children in settings with a high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We studied the epidemiology of RSV-associated acute lower respiratory tract infection (ALRTI) hospitalizations among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children in South Africa.

Methods: Children aged <5 years admitted to sentinel surveillance hospitals with physician-diagnosed neonatal sepsis or ALRTI were enrolled. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were tested by multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction assays for RSV and other viruses. Associations between possible risk factors and severe outcomes for RSV infection among HIV-infected and uninfected children were examined. The relative risk of hospitalization in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children was calculated in 1 site with population denominators.

Results: Of 4489 participants, 4293 (96%) were tested for RSV, of whom 1157 (27%) tested positive. With adjustment for age, HIV-infected children had a 3-5-fold increased risk of hospitalization with RSV-associated ALRTI (2010 relative risk, 5.6; [95% confidence interval (CI), 4.5-6.4]; 2011 relative risk, 3.1 [95% CI, 2.6-3.6]). On multivariable analysis, HIV-infected children with RSV-associated ALRTI had higher odds of death (adjusted odds ratio. 31.1; 95% CI, 5.4-179.8) and hospitalization for >5 days (adjusted odds ratio, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.5-10.6) than HIV-uninfected children.

Conclusion: HIV-infected children have a higher risk of hospitalization with RSV-associated ALRTI and a poorer outcome than HIV-uninfected children. These children should be targeted for interventions aimed at preventing severe RSV disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Child, Preschool
  • Female
  • HIV Infections / complications*
  • HIV Infections / epidemiology*
  • Hospitalization / statistics & numerical data*
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Male
  • Population Surveillance / methods
  • Prevalence
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections / complications
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections / epidemiology*
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections / physiopathology
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections / virology
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human / genetics
  • Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human / isolation & purification*
  • Respiratory Tract Infections / epidemiology*
  • Respiratory Tract Infections / physiopathology
  • Respiratory Tract Infections / virology
  • South Africa / epidemiology