Purpose: To analyze the direct and transgenerational effects of exposure to low-dose 1 GHz (mobile phone/wireless telecommunication range) and 10 GHz (radar/satellite communication range) radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) on the motility of ciliates Spirostomum ambiguum.
Materials and methods: S. ambiguum were exposed to 1 GHz and 10 GHz RF-EMF with power flux densities (PD) ranging from 0.05-0.5 W/m(2) over a period of time from 0.05-10 h. The motility of directly exposed ciliates and their non-exposed progeny across 10-15 generations was measured.
Results: Exposure to 0.1 W/m(2) of either 1 or 10 GHz RF-EMF resulted in a significant decrease in the motility. The dose of exposure capable of altering the mobility of ciliates was inversely correlated with the flux density of RF-EMF. The motility of the non-exposed progeny of ciliates irradiated with 0.1 W/m(2) of 10 GHz RF-EMF remained significantly compromised, at least, across 10-15 generations, thus indicating the presence of transgenerational effects.
Conclusions: The results of our study show that low-dose exposure to RF-EMF can significantly affect the motility of irradiated ciliates and their non-exposed offspring, thus providing further insights into the unknown mechanisms underlying the in vivo effects of RF-EMF.